Diabetes impacts an estimated 425 million people around the world, and that number is projected to rise to 693 million by 2045, according to the annual diabetes atlas released today by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).
Diabetes develops as a result of having too much sugar in the blood. Over time, that imbalance can cause serious and costly health problems including heart disease, stroke, kidney disease and eye problems. The IDF diabetes atlas estimates that the world spends more than $720 billion on health care expenditures related to the disease.
November 14 marks World Diabetes Day – a day to raise awareness of the growing diabetes epidemic and the need for a cure as well as improved prevention and treatment methods.
Here are just a few examples of how Massachusetts General Hospital researchers are working to advance diabetes research and care:
Investigators have reason to believe that a vaccine originally used to treat tuberculosis could provide new hope for patients with type 1 diabetes.
People with type 2 diabetes are particularly prone to ulcers on the bottom of the foot, which can increase the risk of death and often result in a major amputation. Ulcers take months to heal, but a new discovery about mature B lymphocytes – best known for producing antibodies – could hasten wound recovery.
Researchers have developed a new method for measuring blood sugar levels in diabetes patients that could reduce testing errors by 50 percent.
Treatment guidelines for patients with type 1 diabetes have long called for yearly eye exams. But is there an alternative to this one-size-fits-all approach that could reduce patient burden and costs while providing a quicker diagnosis? Findings from a recent study lend insight into a possible new eye screening protocol.
Check out the Mass General Diabetes Unit, which seeks to advance the care of people with diabetes nearby and worldwide. U.S. News & World Report ranks Mass General Diabetes & Endocrinology among the best in the nation.
Imagine a river bringing water to a village or town. What if there was a sudden rainstorm or drought? How would that impact the river’s flow, and the people and habitats that depend on this system?
Just as an ecosystem relies on a river for life, so does the body rely on proper water transport through its cells in order to function. Whether there is too much or too little water being transported or if it is not getting to the right places, it is incredible how much our health can be affected by issues with water transport.
Dennis Brown, PhD, Director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Program in Membrane Biology, has spent much of his research career looking at the body as a system of water transportation. His research began with studying water balance in the kidneys due to their critical role in regulating body water content. Over the years, his areas of investigation have spread to other systems in the body as well to address water imbalance’s many impacts and resulting health complications.
Did you know that in addition to June being Men’s Health Month in the United States, this week (June 12th-18th) is Men’s Health Week in the UK? The focus this year is on belly fat which tends to be more prevalent in men than women.
Regardless of a person’s overall weight, belly fat—also called abdominal adiposity— can increase the risk for developing a number of health issues including colorectal cancer, stroke and sleep apnea.
A recent study by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital also found that individuals who have a genetic disposition for belly fat were at a higher risk of developing both diabetes and heart disease when compared to individuals who store fat primarily in their hips and thighs.
While genetics are a big factor in where fat gets stored, proper diet and exercise can help lessen the risk.
Stay tuned for more posts about men’s health all this week leading up to Father’s Day.
Treatment guidelines for patients with type 1 diabetes have long called for yearly eye exams. But is there an alternative to this one-size-fits-all approach that could reduce patient burden and costs while providing a quicker diagnosis? Findings from a recent study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, lend insight into a possible new eye screening protocol. Here are five things to know:
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among adults. It occurs when chronically high blood sugar from diabetes damages the light-sensitive tissue in the back of the eye. Fortunately, screening can catch this disease before irreparable damage is done, and there are several therapies available to treat the condition. Guidelines currently recommend routine yearly eye exams within three to five years of a type 1 diabetes diagnosis, but these recommendations were based on now-outdated research.
To reevaluate the current recommendations, David Nathan, MD, Director of the Diabetes Center and Clinical Research Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, and a team of researchers analyzed approximately 24,000 retinal exams obtained over 30 years from about 1,400 participants with type 1 diabetes.
Based on their analysis, researchers developed new recommendations that suggest patients with type 1 diabetes should get eye exams to detect diabetic retinopathy based on the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy, rather than on the automatic, annual schedule that is currently recommended. For patients with type 1 diabetes and a current average blood glucose level of 6 percent (within the American Diabetes Association’s recommended target range), researchers recommend the following eye exam schedule:
With no retinopathy, every four years.
With mild retinopathy, every three years.
With moderate retinopathy, every six months.
With severe retinopathy, every three months.
Researchers suggest patients with higher current average blood glucose levels (for example, 8-10 percent as opposed to 6 percent) have eye exams more often, as they are at higher risk to develop the disease. The new recommendations also call for taking photographs of the back of the eye rather than physical examination with an ophthalmoscope, which is thought to be less accurate.
Overall, researchers say the new, individualized schedule would result in earlier detection of the advanced retinopathy that requires treatment to save vision compared with annual exams, while at the same time reducing the frequency of eye exams by half. That would translate into an overall savings of $1 billion.
Researchers are still questioning whether physicians would adhere to these new recommendations, if implemented. “The risk is that physicians may find it easier to schedule an annual eye examination compared with the new individualized schedule, which may be more difficult for physicians and patients to remember,” says Nathan. The next step is to discuss how to potentially incorporate the guidelines into patient care. They also plan to conduct further studies to investigate if this screening strategy could be applied to patients with type 2 diabetes.
When you put on weight, do the pounds show up at your waistline or on your hips? The answer could have long-term implications for your risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) and Type 2 diabetes.
Learn how Massachusetts General Hospital researchers identified a link between body shape and risk of heart disease and diabetes.
Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital have developed a new method for measuring blood sugar levels in diabetes patients that could reduce testing errors by 50 percent.
The new method, which uses a mathematical formula that factors in the average age of a person’s red blood cells (RBCs) in addition to the cells’ overall blood sugar content, could help to improve the accuracy of most commonly used test, known as A1C.
The A1C test is designed to measure the amount of sugar absorbed by RBCs in the body over a period of time. The problem with getting an accurate diagnosis is that older RBCs tend to absorb more blood sugar over time, while newer RBCs soak up less.
Blood cells can live in the body for roughly 90 to 120 days, and cell lifespan varies from one patient to the next.
By incorporating a mathematical formula that accounts for the average age of RBCs in the body, researchers can reduce the errors caused both by older, more glucose-dense blood cells in someone whose RBC lifespan is longer than average, and by the younger, less glucose-dense blood cells in someone whose RBC lifespan is shorter.
An accurate measure of blood sugar levels is crucial for diabetes patients, as persistently elevated levels can damage the heart, brain, kidneys, eyes, nerves and other organs.
John Higgins, MD, of the Center for Systems Biology, is corresponding author of the study.
Do you want to keep up with the latest Mass General research news but find yourself short on time? There’s a solution for that! Our monthly Research Roundup column highlights recent developments from our talented clinician-investigators and PhD scientists, and you can read it in just a few minutes. Find out more about heart implants, busy brain, a new diabetes study, and more! Check our July roundup here.
Massachusetts General Hospital researcher Denise Faustman, MD, PhD, has made a promising advance in her 20-year quest to cure type 1 diabetes by receiving FDA approval to test an old tuberculosis vaccine that may also treat diabetes.
A coalition of researchers led by Dr. Ramnik Xavier of Mass General has identified a connection between changes in gut microbiota (the microbes living in our intestines) and the onset of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). The study, which
followed infants who were genetically predisposed to develop T1D, found that the onset of diabetes was preceded by a drop in microbial
biodiversity—including a disproportional decrease in a number of microbiotic species known to promote health in the gut.
The findings could help pave the way for microbial-based diagnostic tests and therapeutic options for those with T1D. Researchers from
the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and the DIABIMMUNE Study Group were also part of the study team.
A new gel-based capsule solution may hold the key to successfully transplanting insulin-producing islet cells into patients with Type 1 diabetes without the need for immunosuppressive drugs. A Mass General research study has found that by encapsulating the insulin-producing islets in gel capsules that are infused with a protein to repel key immune cells, the islet cells were protected from immune system
attack without the need for immunosuppressants. Dr. Mark Poznansky (above), director of the Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center at Mass General, led the study.