This is What Tasting Looks Like

Dr. Seok-Hyun (Andy) Yun from the Wellman Center of Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital was part of a global team of researchers that was able to observe live taste buds in action for the first time using a specially designed microscope system operated by Dr. Yun and his laboratory team. The study revealed that rather than different tastes being assigned to distinct regions of the tongue, each taste bud has cells for all tastes. The study also suggests the taste process is not limited to the taste buds, but involves a complex interaction between food and an individual’s blood composition.

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MGH/MIT Study Identifies Neurons Important for Inductions of Natural REM Sleep

A joint research team from Mass General and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) may be one step closer to understanding the science of sleep.

Using a scanning method that can activate light-sensitive proteins, the researchers found that the activation of cholinergic neurons (those that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine) in two structures of the brain stem are key to inducing REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep in lab models.

Both REM and non-REM sleep perform important functions, but current sleep aids cannot effectively replicate the cycling between each stage that occurs during natural sleep. By gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie sleep, investigators may be able to develop more effective remedies for sleep disorders.

Dr. Christa Van Dort of the Mass General Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine and MIT Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences is lead author of the study.

Photo caption: Confocal images of cells in an area of the brain stem called the PPT show expression of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (red) and of a light responsive protein (green). The merged image on the right shows neurons expressing both (yellow). (Christa Van Dort, PhD)

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A New Way to Screen for Cancer That’s as Easy as Swallowing a Pill

Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital have developed an innovative new way to capture microscopic images of the esophagus using a capsule-sized, light-based imaging
tool. This new method, which is currently being tested in clinical trials, could make it possible to screen millions of patients for precursors to esophageal cancer at a fraction of the current cost.

Protein that Repels Immune Cells Protects Transplanted Pancreatic Islets from Rejection

A new gel-based capsule solution may hold the key to successfully transplanting insulin-producing islet cells into patients with Type 1 diabetes without the need for immunosuppressive drugs. A Mass General research study has found that by encapsulating the insulin-producing islets in gel capsules that are infused with a protein to repel key immune cells, the islet cells were protected from immune system
attack without the need for immunosuppressants. Dr. Mark Poznansky (above), director of the Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center at Mass General, led the study.

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